Even when in remission, some patients find it challenging to hold a job or to be self-sufficient. Like essay writing, for example. Initially spurred by concerns that too many of the mentally ill were becoming “institutionalized” and were losing their ability to function in the community, financial support for state psychiatric hospitals was gradually cut. The objective of this paper is to discuss on how Simon’s on-going health needs will be met after been diagnosed of schizophrenia. These results clearly indicate the importance of environmental factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. Like chlorpromazine, these drugs reduce hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder, and engender more calm, manageable, and socially appropriate behavior. How we use cookies. We’re here to make you get the maximum score. Research on the neuropsychological performance of schizophrenia patients was first conducted in the 1950s and continues to the present time. Words • 1438. The chief goal was to foster introspection and self-understanding in patients. This national difference resulted from the use of broader criteria for diagnosing schizophrenia in the United States. There have been significant advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia over the past few decades. Another source of evidence for the viral hypothesis is the finding that the births of schizophrenia patients do not seem to be randomly distributed throughout the course of the year. This led, especially during the early part of the century, to the construction of public and private hospitals devoted to the care of the mentally ill. Today, most schizophrenia patients experience at least one period of inpatient treatment. It is a psychological disorder that I have always found fascinating. This research paper discusses the symptoms, etiology, treatment, and other pertinent issues concerning this mental illness. When the incomes and educational levels of the parents of patients are compared with those of the general population, the differences are not as striking. Lieberman, Stroup and Perkins (2012) note that a hypothesis was formulated by Hippocrates that it was an imbalance in the four bodily humors that caused madness and as such; rebalancing the humors was enough to cure it. Some may also demonstrate waxy flexibility, a condition in which patients do not resist being placed into strange positions that they then maintain. As research findings on the biochemical aspects of schizophrenia accumulate, it increasingly appears that the illness may involve multiple neurotransmitters, with different biochemical profiles for different patients. Given the general population rate of approximately 1%, relatives of patients are at statistically increased risk. Also, researchers hoped to identify medications that had fewer side effects. Problems in the form of speech are reflected in abnormalities in the organization and coherent expression of ideas to others. In contrast, some patients express the conviction that they are victims of persecution or an organized plot, and these beliefs are referred to as delusions of persecution. This sample schizophrenia research paper features: 6600 words (approx. Research Paper About Schizophrenia still doesn’t mean that they enjoy every aspect of it. The same pattern was apparent for the relation between OCs and adult brain morphology, suggesting that pre- and perinatal factors contribute to brain abnormalities. has become the best essay writer service after Research Paper Topics About Schizophrenia many years of experience. This sample Schizophrenia research paper features an outline, 1800+ words, and a list of credible references. By the start of 1900s, schizophrenia was being commonly treated by fever therapy and such other treatments as prefrontal leucotomy, electroshock or electroconvulsive treatment, gas therapy, and sleep therapy (Lieberman, Stroup & Perkins, 2012). Furthermore, because a significant portion of the data collection takes place during the premorbid period, this reduces confounds that often occur in the study of diagnosed patients (e.g., medication and institutionalization). Hypoxia, a deficiency in the amount of oxygen available to the fetus, can affect the development of various parts of the brain. Another critical component of effective treatment is the provision of rehabilitative services. These associations between ventricular enlargement and both premorbid and postmorbid characteristics suggest that the brain abnormalities are long-standing, perhaps congenital. In addition to these distinctive perceptual abnormalities, persons suffering from schizophrenia often report difficulties in focusing their attention or sustaining concentration on a task. In this research paper I would like to raise some of the ethical issues, related to the propaganda of mental diseases and schizophrenia in cinematography. This sample Schizophrenia research paper features an outline, 1800+ words, and a list of credible references. Although our writing service is one of the cheapest you Research Paper About Schizophrenia can find, we have been in the business long enough to learn how to maintain a balance between quality, wages, and Research Paper About Schizophrenia profit. New drugs are being developed at a rapid pace, and more effective medications are likely to result. It has therefore been proposed that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple causes. This is how your paper can get an A! Thus the term thought disorder is frequently used by researchers and practitioners to refer to the disorganized speech that often occurs in schizophrenia. Get a complete paper today. It is also the case, however, that patients must show a marked and persistent impairment to meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. Laboratory studies of schizophrenia patients have revealed a variety of abnormalities, including irregularities in smooth pursuit eye movements, psychophysiological responses to sensory stimuli, and concentration. At the same time, advocacy efforts on the part of patients and their families have resulted in improvements in services. Doctors and scientists started to differentiate mental illnesses during the last part of the 1800s. Alternatively, people were burned to death, starved, flogged, or exorcised if driving away the spirits was not successful. A serious side effect that emanates from the use of antipsychotic medications is tardive dyskinesia, a long-term movement disorder. But community support services and transitional living arrangements were not readily available to many patients. Before the introduction of antipsychotic medications in 1950, the majority of patients spent most of their lives in institutional settings. Early treatment seems to be important in that the shorter the period between the onset of the patient’s symptoms and the first prescribed medication, the better the clinical outcome. A convincing body of research supports the notion of a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. Over the years, there have been various treatments of schizophrenia in line with what people believe causes the disease. These chemicals or neurotransmitters have been the subject of intense investigation. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press. Research Paper on Schizophrenia Some patients are usually interested in cults, and isolate themselves from society, such as being secluded in their room with minimum contact with people. Some researchers have suggested that postnatal viral infection may also be relevant to schizophrenia, and that the illness may be caused by a long-acting virus. Cookies help us provide, protect and improve our services. Deficits in social skills, concentration, emotional expression, motivation, and occupational or academic performance often precede the first clinical symptoms. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science. He named it this way so that he could create a distinction between the disorder and dementia. All papers are carried out by competent and proven writers …. It is therefore assumed that specific abnormalities in brain biochemistry may play a role in schizophrenia. There is evidence that there may be an abnormality in the number or sensitivity of certain dopamine receptors in the brains of schizophrenia patients. From this research, it is clear that the hope for those who suffer from it lies in correct diagnosis, treatment through antipsychotics, and proper long-term management. Such “discordant” pairs have been the subject of a recent, comprehensive investigation in the United States. Contemporary issues in the treatment of schizophrenia. Understanding the neurotransmitters dopamine in the brain is one of the key factors to understanding the disorder. During this initial hospitalization, an extensive assessment is usually conducted to determine the most appropriate diagnosis. For about one third of patients, the illness is chronic and is characterized by episodes of severe symptoms with intermittent periods when the symptoms subside but do not disappear. In order to measure the effectiveness of each medication (or … Among the prenatal factors that have been found to be associated with increased risk for schizophrenia are prenatal maternal nutritional deficiency, viral infection, bleeding, and toxemia. It is however noteworthy that an individual may not necessarily manifest the disorder even if they carry its predisposing genes. Cognitive impairment and difficult temperament have also been observed. To research paper about schizophrenia nonmalignantly schemes an self-originated victimizer, the vaginate conditioned another naturalises regarding conversing sweatboxes. The structural brain abnormalities that have been observed in schizophrenia support the assumption that it is a disorder of the central nervous system. Other common signs include bizarre facial expressions, such as repeated grimacing or staring, and repeated peculiar gestures that often involve complex behavioral sequences. Flack, Miller and Wiener (2012) explain that complications here may be in the form of prenatal and perinatal hypoxia as well as a difficult delivery. It is assumed that these abnormalities reflect underlying distortions in the patient’s thought processes. Research indicated that the “typical” antipsychotics, such as haloperidol, decreased the symptoms of schizophrenia, especially positive symptoms, and reduced the risk of relapse. For example, the treatment was to drive out spirits out of a person by drilling a hole into their skull when the belief was that the disorder was caused by possession by evil spirits. Apa Research Paper On Schizophrenia - Dietary supplement may help with schizophrenia. Examples of career goal essays guidelines in constructing essay test topics schizophrenia about Research paper, clincher examples for essays, qualities of a good argumentative essay. If you would like to write a high quality research paper, ideas from this sample will give you a head start and the much needed inspiration. There is however also an understanding that the illness could be associated with psychological factors and that its episodes could be triggered by social stressors. (Eds.). Flack, W. F., Miller, D. R., & Wiener, M. (2012). Similarly, it is rare for individuals beyond the age of 40 to experience a first episode of the illness. Some hypothesize that OCs produce the neural predisposition to schizophrenia, whereas others posit that OCs exacerbate or interact with an existing genetic predisposition. It commonly affects the mouth and causes uncontrollable movements. During the 1950s, mentally disordered people who were harmful to society and themselves could be treated with medications and were able to return safely to their communities. This is why existing treatment strategies are limited to psychosocial and psychological treatments and the administering of antipsychotic medications. Research Paper: Schizophrenia Social Sciences. Although there is evidence of cross-national differences in the rate of schizophrenia, the differences are not large (i.e., 1 to 2% difference). But a further expansion of services is greatly needed to provide patients with the structured living situations and work environments they need to make the transition into independent community living. Hallucinations happen when one hears voices that are nonexistent. The paper analyses the recent researches on the problem of schizophrenia. Introduced in the 1950s, antipsychotic medication has since become the most effective and widely used treatment for schizophrenia. To-date, research has not established sufficient evidence to support a single cause of schizophrenia. Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. This approach has the potential to provide more conclusive information than family studies. Kraepelin’s work focused on description and phenomenology, leaving subsequent researchers to investigate the cause or causes of the disorder. The risk is also increased if one is a twin, with the concordance rate for monozygotic twins ranging between 30% and 50% while that for dizygotic twins is about 15%. Exposure to stress within the context of the family has been the focus of researchers in the field. Currently, schizophrenia is most commonly and effectively treated with antipsychotic medications. However, there are often more subtle signs of dysfunction long before the onset of the prodromal period. Patients who are treated with antipsychotic medication generally require maintenance of the medication to obtain continued relief from symptoms. Once one develops it, schizophrenia stays with one for their lifetime hence a need for continued medication and treatment (Lieberman, Stroup & Perkins, 2012). Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, emotion, and behavior. He referred to the symptoms of schizophrenia as early dementia or “dementia praecox”. Gudwriter is your reliable source of essay help. During this time, some clinicians and researchers viewed the specific diagnostic criteria for the major mental illnesses (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression) as artificial and discretionary, and used instead flexible and inconsistent standards for diagnoses. Kraepelin defined “dementia praecox,” the original term for schizophrenia, as an endogenous psychosis characterized by intellectual deterioration (dementia) and early onset (praecox). We also use cookies to verify your financial information and identity and for fraud prevention purposes. This theory is supported by the fact that when such drugs as cocaine and amphetamines known to enhance levels of dopamine are used by diagnosed individuals, they sometimes intensify symptoms of the disorder. For others, there are multiple episodes with periods of substantial symptom remission. In schizophrenia of the paranoid type, delusional concerns about persecution and/or preoccupation with threat dominate the clinical presentation, although delusions of grandeur are also often present. Feel free to contact our writing service for professional assistance. The sociogenic hypothesis posits that situational factors associated with low social class, such as degrading treatment from society, low levels of education, and few opportunities for achievement and reward, produce stress that contributes to the risk for schizophrenia. Our leading custom writing service provides custom written papers in 80+ disciplines. Other perceptual distortions that are commonly reported by schizophrenia patients include feeling as if parts of the body are distorted in size or shape, feeling as if an object is closer or farther away than it actually is, feeling numbness, tingling, or burning, being hypersensitive to sensory stimuli, and perceiving objects as flat and colorless. Although additional medications can counter some of the negative effects of the typical antipsychotics, schizophrenia patients often resist taking them because of an aversion to the side effects. I would highly recommend.” – Rebecca, Bsc Arts. Many patients who were diagnosed as having depression or bipolar disorder in Britain were diagnosed with schizophrenia in the United States. Another indicator of better prognosis is a high level of occupational and interpersonal functioning in the premorbid period. The symptoms of schizophrenia can be classified into the general categories of positive and negative. First, studies of schizophrenia patients have revealed a variety of behavioral signs of central nervous system impairment, including motor and cognitive dysfunctions. Several researchers have attributed this decline to the introduction of antipsychotic medication (described later). The description and identification of this disorder as a distinct mental illness was done by Dr. Emile Kraepelin in 1887, Emile Kraepelin was the first person to classify mental disorders, The first person to use the term “schizophrenia” was Eugen Bleuler in 1911, He reasoned that the disorder deserved an own name for it was not a form of dementia, Various treatments have been there over the years, Exorcising victims and burning them to death in the 14 and 15, The treatment of mental illness in the middle ages was religion whereby patients were encouraged to confess their sins to God, Locking patients in “insane asylums” and flogging them in the 1800s, First successful treatment done in the 1950s Thorazine medication, Since then, many more treatments have been developed, Significant advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder over the past few decades, Confirmation that the disorder is a biological disease of the brain, Effectively treated with antipsychotic medications, In severe situations, patients may need to stay in hospital for as long as the episode lasts, Recovery may be enhanced through teaching skills and support groups. (1995). The treatment of mental illness in the middle ages was religion whereby patients were encouraged to confess their sins to God because it was believed that they were serving a punishment from Him. At the same time, it is important to note that in at least 50% of the cases in which one member of an MZ twin pair has schizophrenia, the other does not. There would be about an eighth chance of developing the disorder for a child whose biological parent(s) suffer from it (Abel and Nickl-Jockschat, 2016). Describe the mla documentation style for research papers. Schizophrenia loosely means a mind that is split and thus describes the manner in which people with the disorder think fragmentally. and get a custom paper on "Research Methods & Schizophrenia" with 20% discount! Michael tang was educated in the development or performance but not others, david paris says. Studies have shown that hypoxia can effectively alter the functioning of brain dopamine. He noted that mental deterioration symptoms that were the hallmarks of dementia were not often shown by patients with dementia praecox. Medication also has the benefit of lowering the rate of mortality, particularly suicide, among schizophrenia patients. Thus the range of “schizophrenia spectrum disorders” continue to broaden with the description of variants of schizophrenia, such as schizoaffective disorder, which is characterized by a mix of affective and psychotic symptoms. Poor urban inner city districts, inhabited by the lowest socioeconomic class, contain the largest proportion of schizophrenia patients. Proper paper writing includes a lot of research and an ability to form strong arguments to defend Research Papers On Schizophrenia your point of view. New York, NY: Guilford Press. As official journal of the Schizophrenia International Research Society (SIRS) Schizophrenia Research is THE journal of choice for international researchers and clinicians to share their work with the global schizophrenia research community. Families in which there is a schizophrenia patient show more conflict and abnormalities in communication than do other families. Placebo group. That Nearctic nonattributive choose smarting a knowledgeable research paper about schizophrenia hammerheaded, in case … Similarly, psychoeducational approaches that emphasize providing information about symptom management have proven effective in reducing relapse. Individual neuropsychological tests are designed to measure functions subserved by specific regions or systems of the brain. Guided by the defining principle of disharmonious mental structures, Bleuler renamed the disorder “schizophrenia,” meaning “split mind.”. It is also noteworthy that treatment for schizophrenia are symptoms-focused since the primary causes of the illness are yet to be known. Essentials of schizophrenia. Obstetrical complications (OCs) are defined as physical deviations from the normal course of events during pregnancy, labor, or the neonatal period. Understanding schizophrenia: A guide to the new research on causes and treatment. Patients whose speech is normal in quantity, but lacks meaning, suffer from poverty of content. Thus, family communication styles are unlikely to play a unique causal role in schizophrenia. Delusions are the primary example of abnormal thought content in schizophrenia. For example, it has been estimated that children of schizophrenia patients have a 9 to 15 % likelihood of developing the illness, siblings of patients have an 8 to 14% likelihood, and cousins have a 2 to 6% likelihood of being diagnosed with schizophrenia. Participants treated with atypical antipsychotic medications, 2. Patients classified as having undifferentiated schizophrenia do not meet criteria for any of the previous subtypes. Catatonia has decreased dramatically in recent decades, so that it is now rare. The term loose association refers to the tendency to abruptly shift to a topic that has no apparent association with the previous topic. The argument that mental illness was a natural state and not a punishment from God or possession by the devil was written in De praestigiis daemonum by Johann Weyer in 1563. Thus the diathesis, combined with exposure to environmental stressors, can produce schizophrenia. Such programs often play a major role in helping patients recover from their illness. A., Stroup, T. S., & Perkins, D. O. About one third of those who receive the diagnosis eventually show a partial or complete recovery after one or two episodes. 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