Therefore it is probably not the best option in simple cases. Instead, declare variables at the exact point that you need it, Do not reuse the same variable for multiple purposes, Avoid following steps that many developers performed, assuming that they are optimizing the code for performance (they are not required for modern compilers). The cyclomatic complexity is more in the classes/methods where there are a lot of conditional operators (e.g if..Else, while, switch statements). In case of the discount, we have the same situation. This course begins with examination of a realistic application, which is poorly factored and doesn't incorporate design patterns. Inside the loop, we are oblivious of the collection's length. The cyclomatic complexity is calculated from a control flow graph of the method and is given as follows: cyclomatic complexity = the number of edges - the number of nodes + 1. This method should switch off the factory method once it fills its purpose. This is the complete implementation which assigns 5% loyalty discount once the user has spent $100 buying: Drawback of this technique is that it is a bit cryptic and not that easy to figure the first time. That precise condition is only implicitly present in the requirements. However breaking a method into multiple small methods improves the maintainability and reusability. This method uses strategy pattern to perform business logic specific to each account type. Discount must be assigned only once. “Indeed, the ratio of time spent reading versus … Negative branch is then there to just print the separator. To enhance this code, observe what we are doing in the positive and in the negative branch of the if-then-else statement. Reblogged this on lava kafle kathmandu nepal. In this article we will discuss one specific case of branching statements, and that is the case in which branching is used to determine which object to create. This function looks straight-forward, but it contains one branching stateme… Cyclomatic complexity for this method is 19 and it’s too complex. And, not to forget, the model you develop in this way will be correct and free of bugs. But as complexity of the domain logic grows, factory methods begin to look more attractive. So we have traded one method with cyclomatic complexity 3 for a method with complexity 2. Now that we have this function which assigns the discount when business rule is satisfied, the time has come to put it in motion. In order to elaborate on above steps, let’s take the following method as an example. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. But what if your code’s cyclomatic complexity is even higher? It reduces the coupling of code. In this article, I have provided a way to do that. In this video, you will learn cyclomatic complexity without any calculation within 3 seconds from algorithms, flow graph and program. It’s a great explanation Ruwan. Ordinal comparison will perform, Do not use string.Concat to concatenate strings, use ‘+’ symbol instead. Notice that if the order of the statements is changed as follows during a refactoring operation, you will get a totally different result, without any compiler error. After completing this course, you will know how to develop a large and complex domain model, which you will be able to maintain and extend further. Consider the code below. Null Object design pattern is helpful in situations when there is a legitimate object which can stand in place of the null reference. Based on Bootstrap template created by @mdo, How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity - Extension Methods, Next: How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity Part 10: Domain Logic in Factories, Previous: How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity Part 8: Map-Reduce Queries, How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity Part 5: Option Functional Type, How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity Part 7: Extension Methods, The Fast Pencil Fallacy in Software Development, Favoring Object-oriented over Procedural Code: A Motivational Example, From Dispose Pattern to Auto-disposable Objects in .NET, What Makes Functional and Object-oriented Programming Equal, Overcoming the Limitations of Constructors, Mastering Iterative Object-oriented Programming in C#, Making Your Java Code More Object-oriented, Tactical Design Patterns in .NET: Creating Objects, Tactical Design Patterns in .NET: Control Flow, Tactical Design Patterns in .NET: Managing Responsibilities, Advanced Defensive Programming Techniques, Counting Intersection of Two Unsorted Arrays, Moving Zero Values to the End of the Array, Finding Minimum Weight Path Through Matrix, Finding Numbers Which Appear Once in an Unsorted Array. Following are the key steps to follow, in order to refactor a complex method into simple readable code. Visual Studio - There are plenty of extensions out there along with built-in functionality for cyclomatic complexity out-of-the-box. For many years I was declaring the variables on the begging of the method. In this example the function point and adjusted function points are logically two different quantities, but assigned to the same variable. Then it uses the Each extension method, which we have introduced in previous article in this series (see How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity - Extension Methods for details). Example shown there exhibits one feature which was not mentioned at that point, and that is … Lambdas which produce objects also change themselves! These methods are dynamically produced using lambda expressions. We can also get 100% code coverage with 1 unit test. The more complex your code is, the more time and resources you'll need to develop it, maintain it, and the more likely it is to have bugs versus code with a lower complexity score. In that sense, separator before the first element is an empty string, while separators before all other elements of the collection are commas. Since C# compiler never compile a code like “if (n = 10)” we do not need this hack any more. In fact, lower numbers are better and usually complexity under 10 is good. 2. In this series of articles we have been discussing methods that can be applied to reduce cyclomatic complexity of code. Add private methods with meaningful names to wrap each meaningful piece of domain logic. So, the more of those commands, the more complex and high your Cyclomatic Complexity will be. This change in the system state is setting the hasReceivedLoyaltyDiscount flag to True. Note that the requirement begins with "If", and implementation also begins with if statement. This requirement is implemented in the User class like this: Whenever a User object is used to buy something, domain service calls the RegisterPurchase on that User object so that it can add a newly acquired discount to the list of discounts. This calculation logic depends on the account type. That is how we can reduce cyclomatic complexity of our code. Applied to the e-commerce application, this means that the class with five gradual levels of loyalty discounts has the same complexity as the class with only one level. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The trick is that this method does not branch on the flat which indicates whether the loyalty discount has been assigned or not. ( Log Out /  To implement this requirement, we will use the factory method for loyalty discounts: Loyalty discount is now created using a factory method, which is defined as a lambda function. This action helps to further simplify the logic and makes the business logic more reusable. 1. This function looks straight-forward, but it contains one branching statement. I'd define a mapping of Strings to the functions they correspond with. Since ‘+’ symbol is more readable than using ‘Cancat’ method, that should be the preferred way to concatenate multiple strings. Wrap functionality that is not directly related to business logic into separate methods. Consequently, the system complexity will remain constant as more and more such methods are added to the class. Reduce Cyclomatic complexity while processing DataRows Tag: c# , design , cyclomatic-complexity I have the following piece of code which checks if a particular DataRow has a column of a particular name and if it is not NULL. JetBrains ReSharper ; CodeRush Keep up the good work Ruwan. However, you cannot reduce the overall complexity because it is inherent to your problem. But we can turn the tables and act upon the first element instead: This time, the loop is sensitive to the first element indicator. You can reduce cyclomatic complexity for each method to 1. Paths counted in complexity shows that a program written by a program is complex or we can go ahead and reduce the complexity. (We’ll see what you can do to reduce complexity later in the article.) We are making a decision based on the index of the index of the current element. This method implements the following algorithm. That is one situation in which branching can be justified. (12). If this total OD amount is greater than this limit then issue the OD, If not, initiate the manager approval workflow. This metric is useful because of properties of Cyclomatic complexity (M) - M can be number of test cases to achieve branch coverage (Upper Bound) M can be number of paths through the graphs. The strategy instance is created using an abstract factory instance and the correct factory is picked up using a dictionary based on account type. This will also lower cyclomatic complexity, but main reason why I recommend it is that with this block, there is no way for caller code to distinguish legally parsed 0 from number format exception. ). A low cyclomatic complexity generally indicates a method that is easy to understand, test, and maintain. something like “b” + “c” + “d” creates a new object “cd” in memory, then a new object “bcd”, won’t happen in new version? Since “b”+”c”+”d” is more readable than string.Concat(“b”,”c”,”d”), + symbol is prefered over string.Concat. In this series of articles we were refactoring one simple e-commerce application. Cyclomatic complexity calculation is one of the standard approaches to calculate the source code complexity and determine the risk that the source code possesses for any future modification and maintenance. This code also has the same risk of breaking the functionality without any compiler errors, if the order of the lines is changes as follows. 2 answers. 8 Comments. March 13, 2012 Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Else branch prints comma and a space. You can already start looking at ways to reduce complexity. Unless you're 200% certain that returning 0 for parse errors is what caller code needs, you better propagate that exception up and let caller code decide how to deal with it. There are a number of programming paradigms that can help you reduce the complexity of your code. Here is how we would begin with this idea: But this solution is not complete - all separators would be empty strings, but we have to put a comma in all the cases except the first one. Use Visual Studio IDE to perform the following refactoring’s, Then add the comments that explain why (what is now clearly visible from the code). C# compiler compiles the above statement where a, b and c are string type variables. These actions separate the business functionality from technical functionality and make the business logic methods more readable and maintainable. java complexity-theory reduce . Hence, lower the Cyclomatic Complexity number the lesser is the risk to modify it and vice-versa. Calculate the limit of the OD amount that can be processed without manager’s approval. ( Log Out /  In this, the measure of those paths is calculated that are linearly independent. Check if the requested amount to withdraw is less than the current account balance, Check users credit history to see if he is eligible for an OD, If credit history is bad, reject the request. The third path is executed when both conditions are met and if block is executed. (Lower Bound) As in the above example — we have 4 as cyclomatic complexity… Besides calculating cyclomatic complexity, NDepend can track other code quality issues (percent of code covered by unit tests, methods that could have lower visibility, unused classes/properties, etc. Since C# compiler can optimize the performance by inline the code, reducing the no of method calls does not give any performance gain. Therefore, this article discusses, through the application of design patterns, refactoring code with higher cyclomatic complexity into a structure where constituents have lower individual cyclomatic complexity. In all the previous methods, we resolved Cyclomatic Complexity by taking a method with 8 branches, and reducing that 1 method to 0 branches. Cyclomatic complexity is a software metric used to measure the complexity of a program. The problem could be complicated further by dropping the condition that we are printing out the array. Use small methods Try reusing code wherever possible and create smaller methods which accomplish specific tasks. A high flow complexity may be a symptom of a method which does too much or has low cohesion. Once these rules are applied, your public business logic methods should be readable as English without having to enter any comments. On a related note, this method now reads exactly as the requirement: If user has spent more than $100, he will be assigned a loyalty discount of 5% for all subsequent purchases. But, these are not ordinary factory methods. Thanks Ruwan for this I learned a lot from this. Now, let’s discuss further about the following invalid optimizations that many developers try to perform, Do not try to minimize the number of method calls. Reduce cyclomatic complexity switch case swift. The cyclomatic complexity also affects other software metrics, like code maintainability index. DRY (Do not Repeat Yourself) is one of the fundamental principle of software engineering. How to Reduce Cyclomatic Complexity of a method Key Steps Following are the key steps to follow, in order to refactor a complex method into simple readable code. Solution like this is an overkill for the comma-separated printout problem. This method also initiates a workflow if an approval is needed. As demonstration after demonstration will unfold, we will refactor this entire application, fitting many design patterns into place almost without effort. Therefore, let’s remove the duplicates first by creating a new method as follows. user3431624. This article will be my cheat sheet at code reviews. This business logic method uses AccountRepository and TransactionHistoryRepository properties of the class to perform data access operations and CreditHistoryServiceAgent property to perform web service calls. This application has one business rule: When registered user spends more than $100 buying stuff, he becomes eligible for a 5% discount on all subsequent purchases. Notice that cyclomatic complexity of this method is 2. Business requirement says that 5% loyalty discount should be applied to all subsequent purchases. Then this method can be broken as follows, if (string.Equals(string1, string2, StringComparison.Ordinal)). This is a method in the business logic layer of a simple banking application. We still have the if-then-else statement which is there to make decision about the separator. A cyclomatic complexity value between 5 and 7 is when things start unravelling. On the other hand, traditional implementation with branching statements would become significantly more complex when additional levels of discounts are added. One path is executed when hasReceivedLoyaltyDiscount is True, causing the if block to be skipped. They perform the operation and then modify the lambda for the next call. The statement has the ability to change the flow of execution in your program, jumping around in memory. However we have to ensure that methods are named property. Cyclomatic Complexity searches all classes and methods looking for WITH/CASE, IF, WHILE, FOR, FOREACH, and EXPRESSION statements. It is nearly impossible to maintain and develop this application further, due to its poor structure and design. When the last element is reached, we just start the new line, without appending another comma. One of the metrics it provides is McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity. https://www.perforce.com/blog/qac/what-cyclomatic-complexity It is not required because data that we use in the loop, such as the separator, can be used to piggyback control information, such as the flag used to branch execution. Cyclomatic complexity may also be applied to individual functions, modules, methods or classes within a program. This implicitly says that loyalty discount should be added exactly once. These metric, measures independent paths through program source code. These observation lead to a completely different and much simpler implementation: The isFirst flag is gone, replaced by a string. A similar impact is there if we attempt to reuse a variable as shown in the below example. About ruwandotnetI am a fan of Microsoft .Net related technologies. If you wish to learn more, please watch my latest video courses. Therefore we always have to be specific in string comparison method. Cyclomatic complexity metrics are an important indicator of your source code’s readability, maintainability, and portability. Then the business logic methods gets simplified as follows. Essentially, with cyclomatic complexity, higher numbers are “bad” and lower numbers are “good”. That is the situation in which switchable factory methods and switchable lambdas in general gain value. I work for Virtusa Corp as a Software Architect. I find your approach clearer in this case - probably because a/b/c have no business meaning to me. Net result is that the discount, if created, will be added to the list of discounts. That is an example of needless increasing of the code complexity, which in turn reduces code readability and makes it harder to understand what the method is doing. To fix the issue, we will have to change the factory function for the subsequent passes: This time, only the first call to the getSeparator method will return an empty string. By the end of the course, you will know how code refactoring and design patterns can operate together, and help each other create great design. Explicit branching is not required anymore. Do not use following patterns to check for equality. When the discount is assigned, the system state is modified so that the assignment is not executed ever again. The first time we pass the loop, the flag is turned into something else. So the decision is now made about which separator precedes the number, rather than which separator appears after the number. In other words, positive branch of the if-then-else statement is changing the state of the system. There is an array of integers and we want to print that array out as a comma-separated list of numbers. At the same time, this branching statement doesn't contain the additional condition that the discount has already been assigned to the user. But we will still use the same problem statement to demonstrate one more general idea. Once these rules are applied, your public business logic methods should be readable as English without having to enter any comments. Visual Studio Code - Various extensions are available like CodeMetrics. The point about this exercise is in the separator placed between numbers: In this implementation, we are using comma and a space in all cases except when the last element of the array is printed out. You can reduce the cyclomatic complexity in your program by replacing the conditional constructs with polymorphism. The point about this exercise is in the separator placed between numbers: In this implementation, we are using comma and a space in all cases except when the last element of the array is printed out. All the best practices in a single place. If a method has a cyclomatic complexity of 10, it means there are 10 independent paths through the method. As you can guess, there are a number of tools to assist with cyclomatic complexity while writing code. Reducing Cyclomatic Complexity with Python. 1, Methods 0, Cyclomatic Complexity. Therefore, it is impossible to start the new line when end of collection is reached because we do not know where the end is. In the previous example with comma-separated printout, we have used a string to hold information about the next separator to put between the numbers. Static code analysis tools are typically used to calculate cyclomatic complexity and other code complexity metrics. Instead of printing the separator after the element, we are printing it before element. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Consumers can then simply invoke members on the Null Object the same way as they did on the previously non-null object. In this article we have demonstrated one technique for which we can freely say that it is mind bending. Another path is executed when hasReceivedLoyaltyDiscount is False, but totalPurchases is less or equal to $100 - once again, the if block is skipped. There is an array of integers and we want to print that array out as a comma-separated list of numbers. In terms of cyclomatic complexity, this method has three independent paths. These actions reduces the readability but does not give any performance or any other advantage), Allow multiple returns from a method, if it improves the readability and cyclomatic complexity. This can be static. But if we take a closer look at the if statement in the RegisterPurchase method, we can see that it depends on two variables. This is because lower cyclomatic complexity results in higher cohesion and fewer anticipated defects within modules [SteinEtAl2005]. An obvious benefit from applying the Null Object pattern is that null reference tests and correspo… Lower the Cyclomatic complexity better is the code quality in terms of complexity. Do not use following patterns  to check for equality. One of the simplest tools we can use to reduce cyclomatic complexity of our code is to avoid if-else statements based on test whether some reference is null or not. That is exactly the same thing that happened to the isFirst flag before. The calculation of Cyclomatic Complexity is done using the control flow diagram or graph. He can often be found speaking at conferences and user groups, promoting object-oriented development style and clean coding practices and techniques that improve longevity of complex business applications. ( Log Out /  Kind of. Consequence of applying this technique is that lambdas are dynamically adapting to the changing situation in the system. Add private methods with meaningful names… Adding that condition explicitly as part of the if statement is what cannot be justified. Take a look at this classic example. Cyclomatic complexity is a measure which indicates how many independent paths there are through a segment of code. you mean to say, The ifstatement is one of the most common and powerful tools used in programming. Please add more…. Zoran Horvat is the Principal Consultant at Coding Helmet, speaker and author of 100+ articles, and independent trainer on .NET technology stack. Also I think it will be nice to move switch to separate method since it looks like something witch will be used in many different places. Take a look at this classic example. One of the primary causes of rising complexity are branching statements - if-then-else and switch statements. That string is the separator, but it also acts as the flag. Ease of testing. Also, this last function name was changed to CreateLoyaltyDiscountIfFulfilled. Then branch clears the isFirst flag and prints nothing. We could also suspect that it is printing an empty string. One testing strategy, called basis path testing by McCabe who first proposed it, is to test each linearly independent path through the program; in this case, the number of test cases will equal the cyclomatic complexity of the program. This solution is quite satisfactory to the problem at hand. Its probably not just about cyclomatic complexity, but just complexity period. Many developers would have scratched their heads in order to keep their Cyclomatic complexity under 10. Therefore what ever happen in previous case will happen for the latter as well. This is an optimization that is handled by C# compiler and we don’t have to do it again. This change was made to let the method resemble its purpose more closely. This would result in the following simple code that even a BA can understand. The next method we will add is the one which wraps call to the TryCreateLoyaltyDiscount: TryAssignLoyaltyDiscount method is using the TryCreateLoyaltyDiscount method to obtain a discount option - a collection with zero or one discount in it. The trick is that all these methods have the same structure. This can significantly reduce the number of lines and improve readability of your code. In four and a half hours of this course, you will learn how to control design of classes, design of complex algorithms, and how to recognize and implement data structures. This is because the system is supposed to produce a different object next time the same factory method is used. This method creates the discount if condition is met. How is Cyclomatic Complexity Calculated . You can try the following steps to reduce both the cyclomatic complexity and the NPath complexity of your code. Many tools are available for determining the complexity of the application. If this method is written with all variables defined at the beginning of the method, it would look like the one below. Now that we have identified one needless branching condition, we can try to remove it. And right there comes the mind bending moment. Suppose a program has a cyclomatic complexity of 5.that means there are 5 different independent paths through the method. Is how we can also get 100 % code coverage with 1 unit.. Removed from the function code analysis tools are available like CodeMetrics into place almost without effort are dynamically adapting the. 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Is McCabe 's cyclomatic complexity and the correct factory is picked up using a dictionary based on previously! Hence, lower numbers are better and usually complexity under 10 is good no meaning... Have an enumeration at hand: in this, the system state is setting the hasReceivedLoyaltyDiscount flag to True your! Software metric used to calculate cyclomatic complexity therefore we always have to do that also begins with if statement what! Removed from the function point and adjusted function points are logically two different quantities, it. Have provided a way to do that this, the system state modified... Based on the other hand, traditional implementation with branching statements - if-then-else and switch statements to your. And switch statements code coverage with 1 unit test higher value in some more complicated cases creates the discount if. The last element is reached, we just start the new line, without another... 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That precise condition is met ever happen in previous case will happen for the comma-separated printing! First by creating how to reduce cyclomatic complexity new method as an example: the isFirst flag is turned into else! Names to wrap each meaningful piece of domain logic total OD amount that can be justified 3 for a has. Branching can be applied to individual functions, modules, methods or classes within a program complex...: //www.perforce.com/blog/qac/what-cyclomatic-complexity reduce cyclomatic complexity of the if-then-else how to reduce cyclomatic complexity which is poorly factored and does n't contain the additional that! Later in the negative branch of the discount has been assigned to the list of numbers has been assigned not. Consultant at Coding Helmet, speaker and author of 100+ articles, put! Operation and then modify the lambda for the comma-separated printout problem heads in order to reduce cyclomatic complexity done... Following method as an example fundamental principle of software engineering articles we were refactoring one e-commerce! Will refactor this entire application, fitting many design patterns Studio - are... Paths there are a number of lines and improve readability of your code inside the loop as software. The requirements the calculation of cyclomatic complexity of this method just returns an empty Option so it works I! How I could rewrite it in such way so it works of higher value in some more complicated.. At code reviews the operation and then modify the lambda for the comma-separated printout problem the could. String1, string2, StringComparison.Ordinal ) ) s cyclomatic complexity of our code the,!